Download e-book for iPad: An Advanced English Practice Course by James Day

By James Day

ISBN-10: 0582521068

ISBN-13: 9780582521063

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Extra info for An Advanced English Practice Course

Sample text

The environment of [m] in camp is ‘after initial [khæ] and before final [p]’. We can symbolise this environment as [khæ–p], where the dash shows the position of the sound in question. Sounds which occur in the same environment and create different words are said to contrast and to belong to different phonemes. Thus, in English, the allophones [ph] and [kh] belong to the different phonemes /p/ and /k/ because both occur in the same environment [–ˆt], as in the two words pit and kit. We say that pit and kit form a minimal pair in that they are different words which differ in only one sound.

For example, if we were discussing dental 46 3 • English consonants consonants, we might transcribe tenth as [t´n∞ é], rather than as [t h´n∞ é], not showing the aspiration of the [t], since it is irrelevant to our concerns at the moment. Morphology Phonemes are meaningless units of language. The individual phonemes /b/, /¨/, /k/, and /s/ have no meaning by themselves although in combination /b¨ks/ does have a meaning. In fact, the word books /b¨ks/ can be divided into two parts, each with meaning: /b¨k/ is a ‘bound piece of writing’, and /s/ indicates ‘plural’.

Laterals are sounds that are made with only the mid part of the articulators touching. Try making a long /l/: /lllllllllllllll/. You will be able to feel the tip of your tongue touching the alveolar ridge. Both sides of the tongue, however, are pulled down slightly from the roof of the mouth so that air escapes around the sides of 23 The Sounds of Language the tongue. A sound which is not lateral can be called central, although this term is usually omitted. The glides /w j/ are considered approximants as well.

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An Advanced English Practice Course by James Day

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