Download e-book for kindle: Advances in Polymer Science 89 by Andreis Kulicke

By Andreis Kulicke

ISBN-10: 0387504737

ISBN-13: 9780387504735

ISBN-10: 3540504737

ISBN-13: 9783540504733

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The reaction kinetics are followed from the change in intensity of specific carbon signals 155) . From the results obtained from three different techniques, 13C NMR, 15N NMR and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), it was concluded that the cure of the system proceeds mainly by chain extension, whereas crosslinking occurs in the reaction of hydroxyl groups with epoxides and results in the formation of ether linkages 156). An analogous application of those three techniques is found in the studies of polyaddition of diglycidyl-1-methyl benzene, where the role of impurities on reaction kinetics and on the structure of the final polymer networks is investigated 157).

If the nuclei do not diffuse the magnetization will refocus with no loss in intensity after the 180° pulse (reverse the direction of the dephasing) and the second gradient pulse (produces an equal and opposite rephasing of a magnetization). However, a loss in the intensity will be observed if there is diffusion due to the partial refocusing. The PGSE experiment can detect the presence of two or more diffusivities in the species at resonance. The intensity of the spin echo is a function of the duration 8, magnitude G and the time A between the applied magnetic field gradient pulses : I(2x, x) I(2x, 0) £ h, exp [ - Y 2 D ( M ¡ ) x] (27) where x = (Go) 2 ( A - - (28) Application of NMR to Crosslinked Polymer Systems 103 The additional correction terms involving the steady magnetic field gradient (G0), which arises from the inhomogeneities in the laboratory magnetic field B0 are relatively small compared to the pulsed field gradient G 0 and can be neglected to a first approximation.

With appropriate values for AG, calculated and experimental line shapes I((a) are found to be in a good agreement for crosslinked poly(ethylene oxide) swollen in chloroform 1U) . The dipolar broadening parameter AG, independent of the type of solvent used, is related to the residual second moment (AM2b): A M 2 b AM _ = ^ ( c ^ - l ) 2 4 = -AG (37) which describes the crosslinking density in a qualitative and quantitative way. e. on the reciprocal mean number of carbon bonds between crosslinks points (n).

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Advances in Polymer Science 89 by Andreis Kulicke


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