By Frank Ruda
Pushing again opposed to the modern delusion that freedom from oppression is freedom of selection, Frank Ruda resuscitates a primary lesson from the heritage of philosophical rationalism: a formal idea of freedom can come up in simple terms from a safety of absolute necessity, utter determinism, and predestination.
Abolishing Freedom demonstrates how the best philosophers of the rationalist culture or even their theological predecessors—Luther, Descartes, Kant, Hegel, Freud—defended not just freedom but in addition predestination and divine providence. by means of systematically investigating this usually neglected and probably paradoxical truth, Ruda demonstrates how actual freedom conceptually presupposes the belief that the worst has continuously already occurred; briefly, fatalism. during this brisk and witty interrogation of freedom, Ruda argues that simply rationalist fatalism can healing the modern ailment whose paradoxical identify at the present time is freedom.
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Extra resources for Abolishing Freedom: A Plea for a Contemporary Use of Fatalism (Provocations)
Turning against God’s will and his predestination, one acts childishly or à la bourgeois or simply humanly, all-too-humanly. In short, we become a bourgeois, a humanist, if we opt for free will as something that humans have as a capacity. This also implies that we cannot avoid speaking the Protestant Fatalism · 25 truth and should not care if we offend or upset people. Simply because the truth is the truth. And it is eternal and universal, not limited to geopolitical or historically specific conditions.
Just like them, we are the cause of our good works, even though they depend on God’s grace. ) Erasmus explains the causality of human action as follows: First there is thinking, then willing, and finally doing. There is no free will in thinking and doing (both are caused by God’s grace), but a deliberate act of will (consent of the agent) necessarily mediates thought with action. God is thereby the main cause of an action, even if free will is a necessary secondary cause: a causal cooperation leaving room for freedom.
This is also why his commandments cannot be fulfilled by us if he does or did not will it so. They exist for us in order to allow us to have the “undeniable experience of how incapable” we are. ”39 Commandments produce knowledge of the fact that there is no free will. Erasmus unwillingly relies on the following logic: If man can do as commanded, he does not need grace; if he cannot, he does not need commandments. Luther counters: He needs commandments to realize that he cannot fulfill them and thereby attains knowledge of his incapacity (as the very attempt to fulfill the commandments, relying on one’s presumed free will, is what hinders their fulfillment).
Abolishing Freedom: A Plea for a Contemporary Use of Fatalism (Provocations) by Frank Ruda