By Toshihiko Hara
This can be the publication to target a brand new phenomenon rising within the twenty-first century: the swiftly getting older and lowering inhabitants of a well-developed kingdom, specifically, Japan. The that means of this phenomenon has been effectively clarified because the attainable old final result of the demographic transition from excessive delivery and loss of life premiums to low ones. Japan has entered the post-demographic transitional part and should be the fastest-shrinking society on the earth, best different Asian international locations which are experiencing an analogous drastic adjustments. the writer used the old statistics, compiled by way of the Statistic Bureau, Ministry of inner Affairs and Communications in 2006 and inhabitants projections for published in 2012 via the nationwide Institute of inhabitants and Social safeguard learn, to teach the previous and destiny improvement of the dependency ratio from 1891 to 2060. Then, using the inhabitants lifestyles desk and internet copy price, the results of accelerating existence expectancy and declining fertility at the dependency ratio have been saw individually. ultimately, the ancient relationships between women’s survival charges at reproductive age, the theoretical fertility fee to take care of the substitute point and the recorded overall fertility fee (TFR) have been analyzed. historic statement confirmed TFR adapting to the theoretical point of fertility with a definite time lag and resembling women’s survival charges at reproductive age. Women’s expanding lifespan and survival premiums may have prompted selection making to reduce the danger of childbearing. whether the theoretical fertility expense meets the substitute point, women’s perspectives of minimizing the danger might stay unchanged simply because for ladies the cost–benefit imbalance in childbearing continues to be too excessive in Japan. in response to the findings, the writer discusses the sustainability of eastern society relating to nationwide funds, social protection reform, kin regulations, immigration regulations and group polices.
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Additional info for A Shrinking Society: Post-Demographic Transition in Japan (SpringerBriefs in Population Studies)
NIPSSR: National Institute of Population and Social Security Research. 2012. Population statistics of Japan 2012. asp. Accessed 24 Feb 2014. Chapter 4 Historical Process and Background of Fertility Decline in Japan Abstract The extending longevity means rising survival rate at reproductive age. And it reduces the replacement level of fertility. The development of historical TFR seemed to follow the theoretical replacement level with certain time lag until at the female life expectancy reached 70 years.
It means the reproductive period of woman2 could be used more effectively. Other aspects, such as the risk of maternal mortality (the number of maternal deaths per 1000 women at reproductive age in the population) had decreased near zero. 2 Fertility Effects of the Rising Survival Rate of Women at Reproductive Age Increasing life expectancy could be seen as a rising survival rate for women at reproductive age. This could raise the total fertility rate (TFR) and net reproduction rate (NRR), if women do not take any additional birth control.
The medical care cost is also expanding in proportion to an increase in elder population. Towards this, the health care insurance system has been reviewed and reformed too. Especially, in 2008, “late-stage medical care system” for the elderly was introduced. This system is designed for the people who are aged 75 or older. This system also independents to other medical care accounts. The financial resources are derived from public funding (50 %), support coverage of other medical care funds (40 %), co-payment (10 %, and 30 % for people who with more than a certain level of income) (MHLW 2013b).
A Shrinking Society: Post-Demographic Transition in Japan (SpringerBriefs in Population Studies) by Toshihiko Hara